Step-by-Step: SketchUp Tutorial / Shipping Container

This step-by-step tutorial is a brief introduction to basic modeling tools in SketchUp. It leads to the creation of a simplified model of a shipping container (shown below).

sketchup_tutorial_14

1          SET UP YOUR PROJECT:

1.1       Start SketchUp and begin a New File.

File > New.

1.2       Set up the drawing layers.

Choose Window > Layers. This opens the Layers palette. Using this palette, click the New Layer button to create layers named GRID, WALLS, FLOOR, ROOF, and DOOR. Set each layer to a unique color. These layers will store the objects you build. Layer names and colors are arbitrary. In particular, colors should not be expected to bear any relationship to the material being represented. It is conventional to choose distinct colors to make it easy to visually discern objects in different layers.

1.3       Enable the Getting Started and Views toolbars.

Choose View > Toolbars and check the boxes next the Getting Started and Views. All other toolbars can be unchecked. These toolbars contain the basic set of tools.

1.4       Set the GRID layer as the current layer.

In the Layers palette, click the radio button next to the GRID layer. The current layer will receive any newly created objects.

1.5       Erase the human figure.

Click on the human figure and press [Delete]. The human figure is provided for scale.

1.6       Draw a base rectangle.

Click on the Rectangle tool (or press [R]). Click the origin (the point where all three axes intersect) to begin the rectangle. Next, type 38’4,7’5 (these dimensions will appear in the Dimensions box at the lower right-hand corner of the screen as you type them). This base rectangle does not represent a built component. Instead, it measures the distance between alignment holes in the shipping container.

1.7       Zoom out.

Choose Camera > Zoom Extents. The model should appear like the diagram below.

sketchup_tutorial_01

2          CONSTRUCT CORNER BLOCKS:

2.1       Set FLOOR as the current layer.

In the Layers palette, click the radio button next to the FLOOR layer. The current layer will receive any newly created objects.

2.2       Zoom in on the lower right-hand corner of the base rectangle.

Spin the center wheel on the mouse. Zooming in gives you the ability to work with greater precision.

2.3       Begin a rectangle at the intersection of the gridlines.

Press [R]. Hover the mouse over the corner of the rectangle until the Endpoint indicator appears. Click the mouse button.

2.4       Complete the rectangle.

Move the mouse down and to the right. Type 7,6.5. Typing dimensions in this way tells SketchUp the size of the rectangle. Because you are indicating orientation with the direction of the mouse, you don’t need to enter negative coordinates.

2.5       Use the Push/Pull tool to construct a box.

Click the Push/Pull tool. Click on the rectangle you just drew. Type 4.5 for the Distance (height). At this point, the model should look like the diagram below (zoomed-in view). The Push/Pull tool will extrude any closed shape.

sketchup_tutorial_02

2.6       Convert the box into a Group.

Select the box you just drew by drawing a window around it. Choose Edit > Make Group. Grouping the box will allow it to move independently of other objects.

2.7       Rotate the view to see the box from the interior side of the shipping container.

(See diagram below.) Hold and drag the mouse wheel to rotate the view.

sketchup_tutorial_03

2.8       Begin to move the box into the correct position.

Select the box. Click the move tool. Click on the point marked A to begin the move operation. Move the mouse in the direction marked with B-arrow. Type 3. In precision model-building, it is sometimes easier to construct SketchUp objects in a temporary, incorrect position, and then to move the objects into their permanent, correct position.

2.9       Complete the move.

Select the box. Click the move tool. Click on the point marked A to begin the move operation. Move the mouse in the direction marked with C-arrow. Type 2.5. The model should look like the diagram below (zoomed-in view).

sketchup_tutorial_04

2.10     Zoom out.

Choose Camera > Zoom Extents. This causes SketchUp to display the entire model.

2.11     Rotate the view to the position shown below.

Hold and drag the mouse wheel to rotate the view.

sketchup_tutorial_05

2.12     Construct a temporary rectangle.

Press [R]. For the first point, click point A in the diagram above. For the second point, click point B. This rectangle will be used to “mirror” or “flip” a copy of the corner box to the opposite side of the container base. Because SketchUp does not have a native “mirror” tool, we will use the Scale tool with a value of -1 (negative 1).

2.13     Copy-Paste the corner box in place.

Select the box and choose Edit > Copy. Then choose Edit > Paste in Place. This “pasted-in-place” box will be “flipped” to the opposite side of the container base.

2.14     Group the copied box and the temporary rectangle.

Double-click on the temporary rectangle; hold down [Shift] and click on the box. Choose Edit > Make Group. Grouping permits the objects to be flipped without affecting adjacent objects.

2.15     Invoke the Scale tool.

Choose Tools > Scale or click on the Scale tool. Click on the “grip” at the center of the box face (point A in the diagram below). Begin moving the mouse in direction B as shown. Type -1 (negative 1). Click on the Select tool (the arrow tool) to complete the command. This command “flips” the objects to the opposite side of the container base.

sketchup_tutorial_06

2.16     Explode the temporary group and erase the temporary rectangle.

Select the “flipped” box and rectangle. Choose Edit > Group > Explode. Exploding a group returns it to its constituent objects.

2.17     Mirror the two corner boxes to the opposite side of the rectangle.

Repeat the previous set of commands (steps 2.12-2.16), but select both corner boxes this time, and mirror them around the other axis (see diagram below).

sketchup_tutorial_07

3          CONSTRUCT THE FLOOR:

3.1       Build the floor.

Use the Rectangle and Push/Pull tools to construct a box representing the floor. The base of the box should coincide with the outside, top corners of the corner boxes; its height is 2”.

3.2       Group the floor and the four corner boxes.

Draw a window around the floor and the four corner boxes. Choose Edit > Make Group.

4          CONSTRUCT CORNER POSTS:

4.1       Set WALLS as the current layer.

In the Layers palette, click the radio button next to the WALLS layer. The current layer will receive any newly created objects.

4.2       Zoom in on the lower right-hand corner of the base.

Spin the center wheel on the mouse.

4.3       Draw a rectangle for the front corner post.

Press [R]. Click on the lower right-hand corner of the floor. Move the mouse into the floor and type 9.5,2.

4.4       Use the Push/Pull tool to construct a box.

Click the Push/Pull tool. Click on the rectangle you just drew. Type 7’7 for the Distance (height).

4.4       Zoom out.

Choose Camera > Zoom Extents.

4.5       Zoom in on the lower left-hand corner of the base.

Spin the center wheel on the mouse.

4.6       Draw the outline of the rear corner post.

Click the Pencil tool. Click on the lower left-hand corner of the floor to begin drawing an outline of the corner post. Refer to the diagram below for dimensions. Starting at the lower left-hand corner, continue clockwise around the outline. For each new point, check that the direction is parallel with a major axis (the drawing lines will highlight red, green, or blue as appropriate). Type the numbers as written. The Pencil tool creates straight line segments. A closed set of segments can be used as the base for the Push/Pull tool, as shown in the next step.

sketchup_tutorial_08

4.7       Use the Push/Pull tool to extrude the outline vertically, creating the corner post.

Click the Push/Pull tool. Click on the outline you just drew. Type 7’7 for the Distance (height).

5          CONSTRUCT THE SIDE WALL:

5.1       Set a top view and zoom in on an empty space outside the model.

Click on the Top tool. Choose Camera > Zoom Window and zoom in on a small empty area.

5.2       Draw the centerline of a wall panel.

Click on the Pencil tool. Draw a line 1.5” long. From its right endpoint, draw a second line 3”. Use the Rotate tool to rotate the second line 30 degrees clockwise. From the right endpoint of the rotated line, draw a third line 1.5” long. Refer to the diagram below for dimensions.    Again, in this step, we are creating objects in a temporary, incorrect position, so that we can move them into their permanent, correct position later.

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5.3       Offset the centerline to create the edges of the wall panel.

Select the three lines just drawn. Then choose Tools > Offset. Click on the left endpoint of the connected lines. Begin to move the mouse up (vertically). Type 1/16 to set the offset distance. Repeat this step, except move the mouse down, creating another offset below the three connected lines. The OFFSET command creates a copy of the original objects, “offset” by a specified distance.

5.4       Erase the original three lines.

Click on the original three lines to select them and press [Delete].

5.5       Join the edges of the wall panel.

Use the Pencil tool to draw a line at each end of the panel outline to “cap” it. Refer to the diagram below. Capping the figure creates a planar shape which can be Push/Pulled.

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5.6       Set a perspective view.

Click on the Iso tool.

5.7       Zoom out.

Choose Camera > Zoom Extents.

5.8       Zoom in on the outline you just drew.

Spin the mouse wheel or choose Camera > Zoom Window.

5.9       Use the Push/Pull tool to extrude the outline vertically, creating the corner post.

Click the Push/Pull tool. Click on the outline you just drew. Type 7’7 for the Distance (height).

5.10     Group the wall panel.

Triple-click on the wall panel to select it. Choose Edit > Make Group.

5.11     Move the wall panel into position.

Click on the wall panel to select it. Click the Move tool. For the base point, click the back corner of the panel. For the second point, click the corner of the corner post. Refer to the diagram below to see the correct position.

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5.12     Copy-paste the panel in place.

Click the panel to select it. Choose Edit > Copy and Edit > Paste in Place.

5.13     Flip the panel along its Green axis.

Click the panel to select it. Right-click and choose Flip Along > Group’s Green.

5.14     Move the flipped panel into its correct position.

Refer to the diagram below.

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5.15     Zoom in on the base of the two panels.

Spin the mouse wheel or choose Camera > Zoom Window.

5.16     Array the panel.

Select the two wall panels and click the Move tool. Click [Ctrl] to invoke the tool’s Copy mode. (A small plus sign will appear next to the pointer.) Click on point A in the diagram above, and then click on point B. Type *39 (asterisk 39) and press [Enter]. This procedure is used to make 39 copies of the two objects. It is known as creating an “array.”

5.17     Zoom out.

Choose Camera > Zoom Extents.

5.18     Zoom in on the lower right-hand corner of the container.

Spin the mouse wheel or choose Camera > Zoom Window.

5.19     Fill the gap in the wall.

Use the Rectangle and Push/Pull tools to build a box filling the gap between the final wall panel and the corner post.

6          CONSTRUCT OBJECTS AT TOP OF WALL:

6.1       Zoom out.

Choose Camera > Zoom Extents.

6.2       Explode the group of objects at the base of the model.

Click on the floor and choose Edit > Group > Explode.

6.3       Copy the corner blocks to the top of the wall.

Select the corner blocks (from the FLOOR layer). Click the Move tool and press [Ctrl] to invoke the Copy mode.  Copy them vertically so that they are set on top of the corner posts.

6.4       Change the layer of the copied corner blocks.

With the copied corner blocks still highlighted, choose Window > Entity Info. Assign these objects to the WALLS layer. The Entity Info window allows you to change the layer of selected objects.

6.5       Zoom in on the top of the left end of the wall.

Spin the center wheel on the mouse, or type Z at the Command prompt and drag the mouse to define a zoom window.

6.6       Draw a rectangle on the top corner block.

Press [R]. Draw a rectangle as shown in the diagram below (click on points A and B).

sketchup_tutorial_09

6.7       Begin to build a rail along the top of the wall.

Use the Push/Pull tool to extrude the rectangle in the direction marked C in the diagram above. (If you see an error message about “Offset Limited to 3”,” accept the extrusion and then repeat the Push/Pull tool in the direction marked C.)

6.8       Continue the rail across the entire wall.

Push/Pull the face to point D in the diagram below.

sketchup_tutorial_10

7          MIRROR OBJECTS:

7.1       Zoom out.

Choose Camera > Zoom Extents.

7.2       Draw a temporary reference line.

Click the Pencil tool. Draw a line from the midpoint of one of the short sides of the floor, parallel with the red axis, away from the shipping container. (We will erase this line later.)           

7.3       Isolate the WALLS layer. In the Layers palette, turn off all layers except the WALLS layer.   

Isolating a layer sometimes makes it easier to work.

7.4       Group the objects in the WALLS layer, except for the temporary reference line.

Draw a window around the objects and choose Edit > Make Group.

7.5       Mirror the objects in the WALLS layer.

Use a procedure like that described in steps 2.12-2.16, above, to mirror the objects in the WALLS layer around the temporary reference line.

7.6       Erase the temporary reference line.

Click on the temporary reference line and press [Delete].

8          CONSTRUCT THE REAR WALL:

8.1       Restore the previous layer settings.

In the Layers palette, turn on all layers.

8.2       Rotate the view so you are looking at the back of the container.

(Refer to the picture below.) Press and drag the mouse wheel to rotate the view.

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8.3       Build a rear wall, using the Rectangle and Push/Pull tools.

Press [R]. For the first corner, click on a point away from the shipping container (we will move the box into its correct position later). For the other corner of the box base, type 1,6’6. For the height, type 7’7.

8.4       Group the wall.

Select the wall you just drew (triple-click the wall) and choose Edit > Make Group.

8.5       Move the wall into its correct position.

Select the rear wall. Use the Move tool to set it in place, so that its outer face aligns with the midpoint of the corner post as shown in the figure below.

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8.6       Zoom in on the top of the rear wall.

Spin the mouse wheel or choose Camera > Zoom Window. (See the diagram below.)

sketchup_tutorial_11

8.7       Construct a rectangle along the top of the rear wall.

Press [R]. For the first point, click point A in the diagram above. Zoom out by spinning the mouse wheel, and complete the rectangle by clicking on point B in the diagram below.

sketchup_tutorial_12

8.8       Extrude the rectangle to its correct height.

Click the Push/Pull tool. Click on the rectangle you just drew, and extrude its height to 4.5”.

8.9       Group the box you just drew.

Triple-click to select the box and choose Edit > Make Group.

9          CONSTRUCT THE ROOF:

9.1       Zoom out.

Choose Camera > Zoom Extents.

9.2       Zoom in on the right side (the front) of the shipping container.

Spin the center wheel on the mouse, or type Z at the Command prompt and drag the mouse to define a zoom window.

9.3       Build a box across the top of the door opening using the Rectangle and Push/Pull tools.

Use the points on the corner boxes to set the dimensions of the box base. If you use the points at the top of the corner boxes, you can set the height as -4.5 (negative 4.5) and the box will fit between the corner boxes as shown in the diagram below.

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9.4       Set ROOF as the current layer.

In the Layers palette, click the radio button next to the ROOF layer. The current layer will receive any newly created objects.

9.5       Zoom out.

Choose Camera > Zoom Extents.

9.6       Draw two rectangles to fill the roof.

Use the Rectangle tool to construct two rectangles (1) and (2) as shown in the diagram below.

sketchup_tutorial_13

9.7       Isolate the ROOF layer.

In the Layers palette, turn off all layers except the ROOF layer.

9.8       Extrude the roof.

Use the Push/Pull tool to extrude the two rectangles you just drew. Extrude them downwards to a depth of 1”.

10        CONSTRUCT THE DOOR:

10.1     Restore the previous layer settings.

In the Layers palette, turn on all layers.

10.2     Set DOOR as the current layer.

In the Layers palette, click the radio button next to the DOOR layer. The current layer will receive any newly created objects.

10.3     Rotate the view so you are looking at the front of the container.

(Refer to the picture below.) Press and drag the right mouse button to rotate the view.

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10.4     Build the first door using the Rectangle and Push/Pull tools.

Press [R]. For the first corner, click on a point away from the shipping container (we will move the box into its correct position later). For the other corner of the box base, type @1,3’9.5”. For the height, type 7’7.

10.5     Group the door.

Triple-click to select the door you just drew, and choose Edit > Make Group.

10.6     Copy the door.

Use the Move tool with the Copy option (press [Ctrl] to invoke the Copy option).

10.7     Move the first door into its correct position.

Select the first door and use the Move tool to set it in place, so that its inner face aligns with the point marked A in the figure below.

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10.8     Repeat the previous step with the second door. The model is complete.

 

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Step-by-Step: Revit Tutorial / Shipping Container

This step-by-step tutorial is a brief introduction to basic modeling tools in Revit. It leads to the creation of a simplified model of a shipping container (shown below).

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1          SET UP YOUR PROJECT:

1.1       Open Revit and begin a New Project.

Under the [Application Menu] (upper left hand corner of the screen), choose New Project; use the Architectural template. See [F1] > Revit Users > Start a Project > Creating a Project from the Application Menu.

1.2       Set the East Elevation as current.

In the Project Browser (left side of screen), double-click on the East elevation view.  The Project Browser is a palette, the visibility of which is controlled by View > Windows > User Interface. By default it is docked to the left side of the screen. In Revit, one view is always current (i. e. you are always viewing your model from a certain point, direction, and projection). The behavior of certain commands is affected by the view. (For example, new Levels can only be added while viewing the project in elevation.) See [F1] > Revit Users > Introduction to Revit > User Interface > Project Browser.

1.3       Set up Levels named Floor and Roof.

Zoom in on the Level labels on the right side of the view (spin the mouse wheel, or type ZR to zoom in on a region). Double-click on the text reading “Level 2” to change it to “Roof.” When prompted to rename corresponding views, choose Yes. Repeat this procedure and change “Level 1” to “Base.” Levels are fundamental ordering devices within Revit. They can be added, deleted, renamed, and modified within Elevation views. Use Levels as references to locate floors, tops of walls, bottoms of foundations, window sills, etc. Renaming a level is usually done to make the name correspond with some desired building element (e. g., top of roof, bottom of footing, etc.). Renaming the corresponding views simply ensures that the reference will appear consistently throughout the model. See [F1] > Revit Users > Preliminary Design > Levels and Grids > Levels > Adding Levels.

1.4       Create a new Level named Ground.

Click the Modify tool. Next, on the Architecture tab, Datum panel, choose the Level tool. Zoom out to the full extents of the view (type ZE). Hover the mouse at the far left end of the Base Level line. Move the mouse slightly below the line endpoint and click to begin drawing a new Level. (The exact position of the new Level doesn’t matter at this point). Click the mouse again beneath the right endpoint of the Base Level line. Double-click on the text reading “Level 3” to change it to “Ground.” Double-click on the text indicating the height position of the Ground Level and change it to -6.5” (negative six-and-a-half inches). Click on the Modify tool to complete the task. Creating a new level doesn’t add any building elements, only a reference line and associated views (e. g., Floor Plan and Ceiling Plan). Clicking Modify on the Architecture tab is the equivalent of telling Revit that you have completed a task and are about to begin a new one. The same effect is achieved by clicking the [esc] key repeatedly (until the Modify tool highlights).

1.5       Make the Base Floor Plan current.

In the Project Browser, under Floor Plans, double-click on Base. See [F1] > Revit Users > Document and Present the Project > 2D Views > Plan Views.

1.6       Set up two sets of parallel gridlines, establishing a horizontally oriented rectangle.

On the Architecture tab, Datum panel, choose the Grid tool. Use this tool to draw gridlines as shown in the diagram below. (The exact position of the gridlines and the numbers in the grid bubbles do not matter at this point.) Click the Modify tool to complete the task. See [F1] > Revit Users > Preliminary Design > Levels and Grids > Grids > Adding Grids.

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2          Construct a floor and change the floor type:

2.1       Begin to construct a floor on the Base Level.

On the Architecture tab, Build panel, choose the Floor tool. Next, on the Modify|Create Floor Boundary tab, Draw panel, click the Rectangle tool. Use this to draw a rectangle aligning with the intersections of the gridlines you drew in the previous step. See [F1] > Revit Users > Build the Model > Architectural Modeling > Floors.

2.2       Offset the long edges of the rectangle.

On the Modify|Create Floor Boundary tab, Modify panel, choose the Offset tool. In the Options bar, set the Numerical Offset to 3.5” (three-and-a-half inches). Check the “Copy” box OFF. Next, click on the two long edges of the rectangle to offset them to the outside of the gridlines. (Note that Revit will prompt you graphically to offset to either side of the existing line; click to accept Revit’s prompt.) The Offset tool makes a parallel copy of an existing object. See [F1] > Revit Users > Tools and Techniques > Editing Elements > Moving Elements > Moving Elements with the Offset Tool.

2.3       Offset the short edges of the rectangle.

Repeat the previous step, but with a Numerical Offset of 4.5” on the short edges. Click the Modify tool to complete the task.

2.4       Lock the floor-to-gridline relationships.

On the Annotate tab, Dimension panel, choose the Aligned tool. Use this tool to create a dimension between one of the gridlines and the adjacent rectangle edge. (The dimension should equal the offset you just drew.) When you see a padlock symbol, click it to “lock” the padlock. Repeat this step on all four sides of the rectangle. Locking elements to gridlines means that if the gridline is moved, the elements will move with the gridline. This is a very important concept in Revit. See [F1] > Revit Users > Document and Present the Project > Annotating > Dimensions > Permanent Dimensions > Placing Permanent Dimensions > Aligned Dimensions.

2.5       Complete the floor.

On the Modify|Create Floor Boundary tab, Mode panel, click the green check mark to complete the floor.

2.6       Test the flexibility of the gridlines.

Use the Modify tool to select and move the gridlines. The floor edge should move together with each of the gridlines. If it does not, or if you see an error message about constraints, redo the previous steps.

2.7       Change the floor type.

Use the Modify tool to select the floor (click on the floor edge to select it). In the Properties palette, click the Edit Type button. In the resulting Type Properties dialog box, click Duplicate. Give the duplicate type the name Container – 2” and click OK. Still within the Type Properties dialog box, next to the Structure parameter, click Edit. Change the Thickness to 2” (2 inches) and click OK. Click OK again to exit the Type Properties dialog box. See [F1] > Revit Users > Build the Model > Architectural Modeling > Floors > Changing the Floor Type.

3          CREATE AND PLACE CORNER BLOCKS:

3.1       Make the Ground floor plan current.

In the Project Browser, under Floor Plans, double-click on Ground.

3.2       Begin a New Family definition.

Under the [Application Menu] (upper left hand corner of the screen), choose New Family. Choose the Generic Model two level based template file. Click Open. In Revit, Families are used to organize comment components and symbols. Revit has several system families and you can also define custom families. See [F1] > Revit Users > Build the Model > Revit Families and also [F1] > Revit Users > Customize Revit > Creating Loadable Families.

3.3       Create an extrusion.

On the Create tab, Forms panel, choose the Extrusion tool. Next, on the Modify | Create Extrusion tab, Draw panel, choose the Rectangle tool. Use this tool to draw a rectangle measuring 6.5” x 7”, with one of its corners at the intersection of the reference lines. On the Modify | Create Extrusion tab, Mode panel, click the green check mark to complete the extrusion. See [F1] > Revit Users > Customize Revit > Creating Loadable Families > Creating Family Geometry > Constraining Family Geometry.

3.4       Lock the extrusion to the reference levels.

In the Project Browser, double-click on the Back Elevation view. In the Back Elevation view, select the extrusion (it is represented as a rectangle on the Lower Ref. Level). Drag the triangular handle at the top of the extrusion vertically until it reaches the Upper Ref. Level. Click on the padlock symbol to “lock” the padlock. Repeat this procedure for the handle on the Lower Ref. Level (you will need to drag the handle away from the level and back again). Click the Modify tool to complete the procedure. The Reference Levels refer to actual Levels in your project. Because the family component can be placed on any level, the Family Editor uses the term “Reference Level.”

3.5       Save the family.

Under the [Application Menu], choose Save. Save the family as corner_block.rfa.

3.6       Load the family into your project.

On the Modify tab, Family Editor panel, choose Load into Project (the .rvt file). See [F1] > Revit Users > Build the Model > Revit Families > Loading and Saving Families.

3.7       Check that the corner_block component is ready to place.

In the Properties palette, check that “corner_block” is visible. If it is not, choose the Place a Component tool (Architecture tab, Build Panel, Component > Place a Component). See [F1] > Revit Users > Build the Model > Architectural Modeling > Components > Placing Components.

3.8       Place the corner_block component.

Zoom into the lower left-hand corner of the Ground Floor Plan. Click to place the family at the corner of the floor as shown in the diagram below.

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3.9       Change the Visual Style to Wireframe.

On the View Control Bar, click the cube icon and select Wireframe.

3.10     Check the family’s reference levels.

Make sure the component is selected. In the Properties palette, set the component’s Base Level to Ground and the Top Level to Base. Set the Top Offset to -2” (negative two inches).

3.11     Mirror the corner block around the short side of the floor.

Use the Modify tool to select the corner_block family. On the Modify | Generic Models tab, Modify panel, choose the Mirror – Draw Axis tool. To draw a mirror axis, hover the mouse over the midpoint of the short side of the floor rectangle until the Midpoint snap indicator appears. Click on this point. Next, click on a second point exactly to the right or left of this point to establish a horizontal mirror line. The corner_block family is mirrored to the opposite corner.

3.12     Mirror two corner blocks around the long side of the floor.

Repeat the previous step, but select both corner_blocks, and mirror them around the midpoint of the long side of the floor rectangle. Refer to the diagram below.

F:~DocumentsTEACHING0_CURRENT232trainingrevitcontainer_0

3.13     Change the View Scale to 3” = 1’-0”.

On the View Control bar, click the text reading 1/8” = 1’-0” and change it to 3” = 1’-0”. The View Scale setting controls the display of elements and objects in a drawing (e. g., annotation, dimensions, material patterns). In this example it will make the annotations easier to read, relative to the size of the building being modeled. See [F1] > Revit Users > Document and Present the Project > Use and Manage Views > Changing the Graphics of a View > View Scale.

3.14     Zoom into the lower left-hand corner of the floor.

Spin the mouse wheel or type ZR.

3.15     Lock the block-to-gridline relationships and the overall block dimensions for each of the copied corner_blocks.

On the Annotate tab, Dimension panel, choose the Aligned tool, and use it to dimension the component-to-gridline relationships, making sure to click the padlock symbol to “lock” the padlock. Refer to the diagram below. Repeat this procedure for the instance of the corner_block component at the other corner of the floor.

revit_shipping_container_tutorial_15

3.16     Zoom out.

Spin the mouse wheel or type ZE.

3.17     Test the flexibility of the gridlines.

Use the Modify tool to select and move the gridlines. The corner blocks should move together with each of the gridlines. If they do not, or if you see an error message about constraints, redo the previous steps.

4          CREATE AND PLACE FRONT CORNER POSTS:

4.1       Make the Base floor plan current.

In the Project Browser, under Floor Plans, double-click on Base.

4.2       Begin a New Family definition.

Under the [Application Menu] (upper left hand corner of the screen), choose New Family. Choose the Generic Model two level based template file. Click Open. This takes you into the Family Editor.

4.3       Create an extrusion.

On the Create tab, Forms panel, choose the Extrusion tool. Next, on the Modify | Create Extrusion tab, Draw panel, choose the Rectangle tool. Use this tool to draw a rectangle measuring 2” x 9.5”, with one of its corners at the intersection of the reference lines. On the Modify | Create Extrusion tab, Mode panel, click the green check mark to complete the extrusion.

4.4       Lock the extrusion to the reference levels.

Using the same procedure you used for the corner_block family, lock the top and bottom of the extrusion to the Upper and Lower Reference Levels.

4.5       Save the family.

Under the [Application Menu], choose Save. Save the family as corner_post_front.rfa.

4.6       Load the family into your project.

On the Modify tab, Family Editor panel, choose Load into Project (the .rvt file). Zoom in to the Base Floor Plan to place the family at the corner of the floor. Once placed, mirror it to the opposite corner. Refer to the diagram below.

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4.7       Change the View Scale to 3” = 1’-0”.

On the View Control bar, click the text reading 1/8” = 1’-0” and change it to 3” = 1’-0”.

4.8       Lock the family to the gridlines.

On the Annotate tab, Dimension panel, choose the Aligned tool, and use it to dimension the component-to-gridline relationships, making sure to click the padlock symbol to “lock” the padlock. Refer to the diagram below. Repeat this procedure for the instance of the component at the other corner of the floor.

revit_shipping_container_tutorial_07

4.9       Test the flexibility of the gridlines.

Use the Modify tool to select and move the gridlines. The corner blocks should move together with each of the gridlines. If they do not, or if you see an error message about constraints, redo the previous steps.

5          CREATE AND PLACE REAR CORNER POSTS:

5.1       Begin a New Family definition.

Under the [Application Menu], choose New Family. Choose the Generic Model two level based template file. Click Open.

5.2       Create an extrusion.

On the Create tab, Forms panel, choose the Extrusion tool. Next, on the Modify | Create Extrusion tab, Draw panel, choose the Line tool. On the Options bar, check “Chain” on. Use the Line tool to draw a figure corresponding with the diagram below, with the outside corner of the “L” at the intersection of the reference lines. On the Modify | Create Extrusion tab, Mode panel, click the green check mark to complete the extrusion.

revit_shipping_container_tutorial_16

5.3       Lock the extrusion to the reference levels.

Using the same procedure you used for the corner_post_front family, lock the top and bottom of the extrusion to the Upper and Lower Reference Levels.

5.4       Save the family.

Under the [Application Menu], choose Save. Save the family as corner_post_rear.rfa.

5.5       Load the family into your project.

On the Modify tab, Family Editor panel, choose Load into Project (the .rvt file). Zoom in to the Base Floor Plan to place the family at the corner of the floor. Once placed, mirror it to the opposite corner. Refer to the diagram below.

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5.6       Lock the family to the gridlines.

On the Annotate tab, Dimension panel, choose the Aligned tool, and use it to dimension the component-to-gridline relationships, making sure to click the padlock symbol to “lock” the padlock. Refer to the diagram below. Repeat this procedure for the instance of the family at the other corner of the floor.

revit_shipping_container_tutorial_09

5.7       Zoom to the extents of the model.

Type ZE.

5.8       Check the corner_post component for position and flexibility.

Use the Modify tool to select and move the gridlines. The floor edge and the family instances (the corner posts) should move together with each of the gridlines. If they do not, or if you see an error message about constraints, redo the previous steps.

6          CREATE WALLS:

6.1       Begin the construction of a side wall.

On the Architecture tab, Build Panel, choose the Wall: Architectural tool. See [F1] > Revit Users > Build the Model > Architectural Modeling > Walls.

6.2       Edit the wall type.

In the Properties palette, make sure the Basic Wall – Generic 8” type is current. click the Edit Type button. In the resulting Type Properties dialog box, click Duplicate. Give the duplicate type the name Container – Corrugated and click OK. Still within the Type Properties dialog box, next to the Structure parameter, click Edit. Change the Thickness to 2” (2 inches) and click OK. Click OK again to exit the Type Properties dialog box. Predefined wall types exist to facilitate the creation of models. Types and instances can be modified using the Properties palette. See [F1] > Revit Users > Build the Model > Architectural Modeling > Walls > Modifying Walls > Changing the Type of a Wall.

6.3       Place an instance of the wall.

On the Architecture tab, Build Panel, choose the Wall: Architectural tool. On the Options bar, set the Height to Roof. Set the Location Line to Finish Face: Exterior. Check the “Chain” box off. Click on the point marked A in the diagram below to begin placing the wall. Click on point B to complete the wall. Then click on the Modify tool to complete the command. Height is a constraint. Any change to the location of the Roof level will affect the height of the walls constrained to it. (Choosing Unconnected for Height omits the constraint.) See [F1] > Revit Users > Build the Model > Architectural Modeling > Walls > Placing Walls.

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6.4       Place two more instances of the wall.

Repeat the previous step to place two additional instances of the wall. Choose the Default 3D view to check that the model corresponds with the diagram below. The Default 3D View is a quick way to get a 3D view of the project. Click on the house icon in the Quick Access Toolbar (top of screen). See [F1] > Revit Users > Introduction to Revit > User Interface > Quick Access Toolbar and [F1] > Revit Users > Document and Present the Project > 3D Views > Creating a Perspective 3D View.

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6.5       Restore the Base floor plan.

Double-click on the Base Floor Plan.

6.6       Lock the wall ends to the gridlines, and the wall centerlines to the gridlines.

On the Annotate tab, Dimension panel, choose the Aligned tool, and use it to dimension the wall-end-to-gridline relationships, making sure to click the padlock symbol to “lock” the padlock.  Repeat this procedure for the wall-centerlines-to-gridline relationships.

6.7       Check the walls for position and flexibility.

Use the Modify tool to select and move the gridlines. The walls should move together with each of the gridlines. If they do not, or if you see an error message about constraints, redo the previous steps.

6.8       Check the walls and corner posts for height conformance.

Double-click on the North Elevation to make that view current. Use the Modify tool to select and move the Roof Level up and down. Repeat this procedure with the East Elevation. In both views, the top of the walls and corner posts should move together with the Roof Level. If they do not, or if you see an error message about constraints, redo the previous steps.

7          CONSTRUCT ROOF:

7.1       Make the Roof plan current.

Double-click on the Roof Floor Plan.

7.2       Insert a corner_block component.

On the Architecture tab, Build panel, choose the Component > Place a Component tool. At the top of the Properties panel, click the type selector (it should currently display the corner_post_rear component). Change the type selector to the corner_block component. Insert this component at the lower left-hand corner of the Roof floor plan.

7.3       Correct the component’s height.

Use the Modify tool to select the component you just placed. In the Properties palette, check that its Base Level is set to Roof. Change its Top Offset to 4.5” (four-and-a-half inches).

7.4       Mirror the component.

Using a procedure similar to the one you had used with the original set of corner_block components, mirror the component to all four corners of the Roof floor plan.

7.5       Lock the components to the gridlines.

Use the same procedure you’ve used previously (Aligned dimensions with padlock symbols).

7.6       Make the Default 3D View current.

7.7       Construct walls between corner blocks.

Using a procedure similar to the one you used earlier to construct the container’s side walls, use the Wall: Architectural tool to build four “rails” around the top edge of the container as shown in the diagram below. Note, when you begin constructing the first wall, set the Base Constraint to Roof, the Top Constraint to Unconnected, and the Unconnected Height to 4.5” (four-and-a-half inches).

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7.8       Lock the wall ends and wall centerlines to the gridlines.

Use the Aligned dimension tool.

7.9       Make the Roof floor plan current.

Double-click on the Roof floor plan.

7.10     Begin to construct a roof.

On the Architecture tab, Build panel, choose the Roof > Roof by Footprint tool. See [F1] > Revit Users > Build the Model > Architectural Modeling > Roofs

7.11     Edit the roof type.

In the Properties palette, make sure the Basic Roof – Generic 12” type is current. Click the Edit Type button. In the resulting Type Properties dialog box, click Duplicate. Give the duplicate type the name Container – 4.5” and click OK. Still within the Type Properties dialog box, next to the Structure parameter, click Edit. Change the Thickness to 4.5” (four-and-a-half inches) and click OK. Click OK again to exit the Type Properties dialog box.

7.12     Outline the roof.

On the Modify | Create Roof Footprint tab, Draw panel, choose the Line tool. On the Options bar, check Defines Slope off; check Chain on. Use the Line tool to outline the roof as shown in the diagram below. By checking the “Defines Slope” option off, Revit will create a flat roof.

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7.13     Lock the roof edges and corner notches to the gridlines.

Use the same procedure you’ve used previously (Aligned dimensions with padlock symbols). There will be a total of 12 dimensions: one on each roof edge, and two at each of the corner notches.

7.14     Complete the roof.

On the Modify | Create Roof Footprint tab, Mode panel, click the green check mark.

8          CREATE A DOOR:

8.1       Set the Base floor plan as current.

Double-click on the Base floor plan. See [F1] > Revit Users > Build the Model > Architectural Modeling > Doors > Placing Doors.

8.2       Adjust the gridlines to their correct positions.

Begin by using the Aligned Dimension tool to establish a dimension between any two parallel gridlines. Click the Modify tool. Then click on one of the gridlines you just dimensioned. Finally, click on the highlighted dimension to change its value. (The “long” dimension is 38’-4”, and the “short” dimension is 7’-5”.

8.3       Create a wall closing the open side.

On the Architecture tab, Build panel, choose the Wall: Architectural tool. Before placing the wall, check the Properties palette. The Base Constraint should be set to Base and the Top Constraint should be set to Up to Level: Roof.

8.4       Begin a New Family definition.

Under the [Application Menu], choose New Family. Choose the Door template file. Click Open.

8.5       Make the Exterior view current.

In the Project Browser, double-click on the Exterior Elevation view.

8.6       Modify the door frame.

In the elevation view, double-click on the extrusion representing the door frame. Double-click on the text reading Frame Width = 0’-3”. Change the frame width parameter to 1/2” (one-half inch). Click the green check mark (Modify | Edit Extrusion tab) to complete editing.

8.7       Set the door width and height as instance parameters.

Click on the text reading Width = 3’-0”. In the Options bar, check Instance Parameter on. Repeat this step for the Height.

8.8       Save the family.

Save this family as container_door.rfa.

8.9       Load the family into your project.

On the Modify tab, Family Editor panel, choose Load into Project (the .rvt file).

8.10     Place the door.

Insert the door at the midpoint of the wall you drew earlier. Click the Modify tool to complete the task.

8.11     Invoke the Default 3D view.

8.12     Modify instance properties.

Select the door. In the Properties palette, under Dimensions, change the Sill Height to 1”, the Height to 8’-3”, and the Width to 7’-0”.

8.13     The model is complete.

 

 

 

 

Step-by-Step: AutoCAD Tutorial / Shipping Container

THIS TUTORIAL is a brief introduction to basic modeling tools in AutoCAD. It leads to the creation of a simplified model of a shipping container.

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1 SET UP YOUR PROJECT:

1.1 Open AutoCAD and begin a New Project.

Under the [Application Menu] (upper left hand corner of the screen), choose New Drawing; use the acad.dwt template.

1.2 Turn off the background grid.

Type GRID at the Command prompt, then type OFF. The background grid is a legacy feature from old versions of AutoCAD. Its spacing can be changed by typing GRID. The SNAP command is related although SNAP can be set to snap to off-grid points.

1.3 Turn off the Dynamic User Coordinate System.

Click repeatedly on the DUCS button below the Command prompt until you see the indication “<Dynamic UCS off>.” The Dynamic User Coordinate System is a feature which dynamically adjusts the XYZ coordinate system while you draw. However, its results are often unpredictable.

1.4 Set the drawing units to feet and inches.

Type UNITS at the Command prompt, then set the Length type to Architectural. Click OK. This setting changes how AutoCAD interprets the numbers and dimensions you enter. “Architectural” units mean feet and inches.

1.5 Set up the drawing layers.

Type LAYER at the Command prompt. This opens the Layer Properties Manager panel. Using this panel, click the New Layer button to create layers named GRID, WALLS, FLOOR, ROOF, and DOOR. Set each layer to a unique color. These layers will store the objects you build. Layer names and colors are arbitrary. In particular, colors should not be expected to bear any relationship to the material being represented. It is conventional to choose distinct colors to make it easy to visually discern objects in different layers.

1.6 Set the GRID layer as the current layer.

Type -LA at the Command prompt, then type S, then type GRID, then click Enter twice. The current layer will receive any newly created objects.

1.7 Turn on the ORTHO function.

Click the [F8] key repeatedly until you see the note “<Ortho On>” at the Command prompt. The ORTHO function is an on-off switch, constraining many of the drawing and editing tools to moving along the X-Y axes.

1.8 Turn on the OSNAP function.

Click the [F3] key repeatedly until you see the note “<Osnap On>” at the Command prompt. The OSNAP function is an on-off switch, constraining many of the drawing and editing tools to “lock” to predefined points in the model.

1.9 Set the object snaps.

Type OS at the Command prompt. Make sure that the snaps for Intersection, Endpoint, and Midpoint are highlighted. Press OK. Object snaps are user-determined.

1.10 Draw a base rectangle.

Type REC at the Command prompt. When prompted, enter 0,0 as the start point. For the second point, enter 38’4,7’5. This base rectangle does not represent a built component. Instead, it measures the distance between alignment holes in the shipping container.

1.11 Zoom out.

Type Z at the Command prompt, then type E. At this point, the model should look like the diagram below. This keyboard command quickly zooms to show the entire model.

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2 CONSTRUCT CORNER BLOCKS:

2.1 Navigate into 3D modeling space.

Type 3DO (3D-Orbit). Use the left mouse button to pan and rotate the view in 3D space. Up until this point, you have been working in 3D space but viewing it in a 2D view (plan view). The 3DO tool allows you to navigate in 3D space.

2.2 Set FLOOR as the current layer.

Type -LA at the Command prompt, then type S, then type FLOOR, then click Enter twice. The current layer will receive any newly created objects.

2.3 Zoom in on the lower right-hand corner of the base rectangle.

Spin the center wheel on the mouse, or type Z at the Command prompt and click two points to define a zoom window. Zooming in gives you the ability to work with greater precision.

2.4 Begin to build a box at the intersection of the gridlines.

Type BOX. Hover the mouse over the corner of the rectangle until the Intersection indicator appears. Click the mouse button. The BOX command builds solid rectangular boxes.

2.5 Complete the box.

To complete the base of the box, type @7,-6.5. For the height, type 4.5. At this point, the model should look like the diagram below (zoomed-in view): The @ symbol tells AutoCAD to use “relative coordinates” for the base of the box.

Print

2.6 Move the box into the correct position.

Type M at the Command prompt. Select the box by clicking on its edge. Click [Enter] to complete the selection process. When prompted for a base point, click anywhere in the drawing window. Move the mouse in the positive Y-direction and type 3. Click [Enter]. Repeat this procedure, moving the box 2.5 inches in the negative X-direction. This step shows that it is sometimes much easier to construct AutoCAD objects in a temporary, incorrect position, and then to move the objects into their permanent, correct position.

03

2.7 Zoom out.

Type Z at the Command prompt, then type E. This causes AutoCAD to display the entire model.

2.8 Mirror the box to the opposite side of the rectangle.

Type MI at the Command prompt. Click on the box to select it. Press [Enter] to complete the selection process. When prompted to select the first point of the mirror line, hover the mouse near the midpoint of one of the sides of the base rectangle. Click on a midpoint of the side. For the second point, move the mouse and AutoCAD will preview the mirrored location of the corner box. Click to complete the command. When prompted to erase the source objects, type N. The MIRROR command reflects objects through a line.

2.9 Mirror two boxes to the opposite side of the rectangle.

Repeat the previous command, but select both corner boxes this time.

04

3 CONSTRUCT THE FLOOR:

3.1 Build the floor.

Type BOX. The base of the box should coincide with the outside, top corners of the corner boxes; its height is 2”.

4 CONSTRUCT CORNER POSTS:

4.1 Set the Visual Style to Conceptual.

Type VISUALSTYLES. In the resulting panel, double-click on the Conceptual preview. Visual Styles control how AutoCAD displays objects.

4.2 Set WALLS as the current layer.

Type -LA at the Command prompt, then type S, then type WALLS, then click Enter twice. The current layer will receive any newly created objects.

4.3 Zoom in on the lower right-hand corner of the base.

Spin the center wheel on the mouse, or type Z at the Command prompt and click two points to define a zoom window.

4.4 Build the front corner post.

Type BOX. For the first corner, click on the corner of the floor. Type @-9.5,2. For the height, type 7’7” (seven feet, seven inches).

4.5 Zoom out.

Type Z at the Command prompt, then type E.

4.6 Zoom in on the lower left-hand corner of the base.

Spin the center wheel on the mouse, or type Z at the Command prompt and click two points to define a zoom window.

4.7 Draw the outline of the rear corner post.

Type PLINE. Click on the corner of the floor to begin drawing an outline of the corner post. Refer to the diagram below for dimensions. For each new point, move the mouse in the direction you want to draw, and type the distance. Press [Enter] to complete the outline. The PLINE command creates a “polyline” (a single object consisting of multiple straight or curved segments). In AutoCAD (as distinct from Rhino), a PLINE must be on a single plane. A closed polyline can be used as the base for a solid extrusion, as shown in the next step.

06

4.8 Extrude the outline vertically to create the post.

Type EXTRUDE. Click on the outline of the corner post to select it. Click [Enter] to complete the selection process. For the height, type 7’7” (seven feet, seven inches).

5 CONSTRUCT THE SIDE WALL:

5.1 Set a plan view.

Type PLAN. Press [Enter[ to select the Current option. The PLAN command will show a plan according to the currently defined coordinate system (“UCS”) – by default, showing a plan view of the xy plane.

5.2 Begin the centerline of a wall panel.

Type PLINE.

5.3 Complete the centerline.

Click on a point away from the shipping container to begin drawing an outline of the wall panel (we will move the panel into position later). Refer to the diagram below for dimensions. For the first segment, begin at the left, move the mouse to the right, and type 1.5. For the second segment, type @3<330. For the third and final segment, move the mouse to the right, and type 1.5. Again, in this step, we are creating an object in a temporary, incorrect position, so that we can move it into its permanent, correct position later.

07

5.4 Offset the centerline to create the edges of the wall panel.

Type OF. Type 1/16 to set the offset distance. Click on the polyline you just drew, and then click once above it. Repeat the OF (OFFSET) command, but this time click below the line. The OFFSET command creates a copy of the original object, “offset” by a specified distance.

5.5 Erase the original polyline.

Type E. Click on the original polyline to select it. Press [Enter] to complete the selection process.

5.6 Join the edges of the wall panel.

Type L. Draw a line at each end of the panel outline to “cap” it.

08

5.7 Combine the segments into a single polyline.

Type PE. Then type M for Multiple. Draw a selection window around the entire outline of the wall panel. Press [Enter] to complete the selection process. When prompted, type Y to convert the selection to polylines. Finally, type J to join the segments into a single polyline. The “fuzz distance” is 0’-0”. Press [Enter] or [Esc] to complete the command. The PE command (Polyline Edit) has several options, including the option to join previously unconnected segments into a single polyline. However, the unconnected segments must have aligned endpoints.

5.8 Navigate into 3D modeling space.

Type 3DO. Use the left mouse button to pan and rotate the view in 3D space. 3DO (three-dimensional orbit) is a fundamental command for navigating three-dimensional space in AutoCAD.

5.9 Zoom out.

Type Z at the Command prompt, then type E.

5.10 Extrude the outline vertically to create the wall panel.

Type EXTRUDE. Click on the outline of the wall panel to select it. Click [Enter] to complete the selection process. For the height, type 7’7” (seven feet, seven inches).

5.11 Move the wall panel into position.

Type MOVE. Click on the wall panel to select it. For the base point, click the back corner of the panel. For the second point, click the corner of the corner post. Refer to the diagram below to see the correct position.

09

5.12 Mirror the panel.

Type MI. Select the wall panel. For the first point, click a point on the end of the wall panel. For the second point, move the mouse and AutoCAD will preview the mirrored location of the wall panel. Click to complete the command. When prompted to erase the source objects, type N.

10

5.13 Array the panel.

Type -AR. (Note the dash before the AR.) Select the two wall panels and press [Enter]. For the type of array, type R. For the number of rows, type 1. For the number of columns, type 40. For the distance between columns, click on points A and B in the diagram above. The -AR (Array) command is used to make multiple copies of a single object, according to defined rules.

5.14 Zoom out.

Type Z at the Command prompt, then type E.

5.15 Zoom in on the lower right-hand corner of the container.

Spin the center wheel on the mouse, or type Z at the Command prompt and click two points to define a zoom window.

5.16 Fill the gap in the wall.

Use the BOX command to build a box filling the gap between the final wall panel and the corner post.

6 CONSTRUCT OBJECTS AT TOP OF WALL:

6.1 Zoom out.

Type Z at the Command prompt, then type E.

6.2 Copy the corner blocks to the top of the wall.

Type COPY. Select the corner blocks (from the FLOOR layer). Copy them vertically so that they are set on top of the corner posts.

6.3 Change the layer of the copied corner blocks.

Type -CH (Note the dash before the CH). Select the two corner blocks you just copied. Type P for Properties, then LA for layer. Type WALLS to assign these objects to the WALLS layer. Finally, press [Enter] to complete the command. The -CH (Change) command enables you to change properties of an object, such as its layer, color, linetype, lineweight, and so on. (Keep in mind, however, that properties such as color and linetype are usually set as BYLAYER so that they can be controlled on a global level.)

6.4 Zoom in on the top of the left end of the wall.

Spin the center wheel on the mouse, or type Z at the Command prompt and click two points to define a zoom window.

6.5 Draw a rectangle on top of the corner post.

Type REC. Refer to the diagram below to locate the rectangle correctly. (Click on the corner points marked A and B.) This rectangle will be used in the next step as a base for the top rail.

11

6.6 Build a rail along the top of the wall.

Type BOX. Begin the box by clicking on the corner point marked C in the diagram above. For the second point, zoom in on the other end of the wall, and click on the point marked D in the diagram below. For the height, type 4.5.

12

7 MIRROR OBJECTS:

7.1 Zoom out.

Type Z at the Command prompt, then type E.

7.2 Draw a temporary mirror line.

Type L. Draw a line from the midpoint of one of the short sides of the floor, away from the shipping container. (We will erase this line later.)

7.3 Isolate the WALLS layer.

Type -LA. Then type OF. Then type * (asterisk). When prompted to turn off the current layer, type N. Press [Enter] to complete the command. Isolating a layer sometimes makes it easier to work.

7.4 Mirror the objects in the WALLS layer.

Type MI. Draw a window around all of the objects in the WALLS layer. For the first point, click a point on the end of the temporary line you just drew. For the second point, move the mouse and AutoCAD will preview the mirrored location of the objects. Click to complete the command. When prompted to erase the source objects, type N.

7.5 Restore the previous layer settings.

Type LAYERP. LAYERP (Layer Previous) restores the previous layer settings.

7.6 Erase the temporary mirror line.

Type E to erase the temporary mirror line.

8 CONSTRUCT THE REAR WALL:

8.1 Zoom in on the left side of the shipping container.

Spin the center wheel on the mouse, or type Z at the Command prompt and click two points to define a zoom window.

8.2 Rotate the view so you are looking at the back of the container.

(Refer to the picture below.) Type 3DO. Use the left mouse button to pan and rotate the view in 3D space.

13

8.3 Build a rear wall.

Type BOX. For the first corner, click on a point away from the shipping container (we will move the box into its correct position later). For the other corner of the box base, type @1,-6’6. For the height, type 7’7.

8.4 Move the wall into its correct position.

Type M. Select the rear wall and set it in place, so that its outer face aligns with the midpoint of the corner post as shown in the figure below.

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8.5 Zoom in on the top of the rear wall.

(See the diagram below.) Spin the center wheel on the mouse, or type Z at the Command prompt and click two points to define a zoom window.

15

8.6 Draw a rectangle on top of the corner post.

(See the diagram above.) Type REC. Refer to the diagram above to locate the rectangle correctly. (Click on the corner points marked A and This rectangle will be used in the next step as a base for the top rail.

8.7 Build a rail along the top of the rear wall.

Type BOX. Begin the box by clicking on the corner point marked C in the diagram above. For the second point, zoom in on the other end of the wall, and click on the point marked D in the diagram below. For the height, type 4.5.

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9 CONSTRUCT THE ROOF:

9.1 Zoom out.

Type Z at the Command prompt, then type E.

9.2 Zoom in on the right side (the front) of the shipping container.

Spin the center wheel on the mouse, or type Z at the Command prompt and click two points to define a zoom window.

9.3 Build a rail across the top of the door opening.

Type BOX. Use the points on the corner boxes to set the dimensions of the box base. If you use the points at the top of the corner boxes, you can set the height as -4.5 (negative 4.5) and the box will fit between the corner boxes as shown in the diagram below.

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9.4 Set ROOF as the current layer.

Type -LA, then type S, then type ROOF, then click Enter twice. The current layer will receive any newly created objects.

9.5 Zoom out.

Type Z at the Command prompt, then type E.

9.6 Outline the roof.

Type PL. Trace the outline of the roof opening between the top rails on all four walls. Press [Enter] to complete the outline.

9.7 Isolate the ROOF layer.

Type -LA. Then type OF. Then type * (asterisk). When prompted to turn off the current layer, type N. Press [Enter] to complete the command.

9.8 Extrude the roof.

Type EXTRUDE. Select the outline you just drew and use -1 (negative 1) as the height.

10 CONSTRUCT THE DOOR:

10.1 Restore the previous layer settings.

Type LAYERP.

10.2 Set DOOR as the current layer.

Type -LA, then type S, then type DOOR, then click Enter twice. The current layer will receive any newly created objects.

10.3 Rotate the view so you are looking at the front of the container.

(Refer to the picture below.) Type 3DO. Use the left mouse button to pan and rotate the view in 3D space.

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10.4 Build the first door.

Type BOX. For the first corner, click on a point away from the shipping container (we will move the box into its correct position later). For the other corner of the box base, type @1,3’9-1/2”. For the height, type 7’7.

10.5 Move the door into its correct position.

Type M. Select the door and set it in place, so that its inner face aligns with the point marked A in the figure below.

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10.6 Mirror the door.

Type MI. Select the door and mirror it around the midpoint of the shipping container floor. The model is complete.

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AutoCAD: Importing and Exporting

TO EXPORT A MODEL OR DRAWING FROM AUTOCAD:

AutoCAD offers a small number of writeable file formats. The most versatile and useful of these are the DWG and DXF formats. Use AutoCAD’s SAVEAS command to export your AutoCAD work in several versions of these formats. (Note, for example, that some software cannot read a 2010 DWG or a 2013 DWG file, so that you may need to SAVEAS a 2007 DWG file to ensure legibilty.)

AutoCAD’s WBLOCK (Write Block) command is useful if you want to export just part of a drawing or model to a new DWG file.

AutoCAD’s EXPORT command is minimally useful: it allows you to export your AutoCAD information in one of a few non-AutoCAD formats.

 


TO IMPORT A MODEL OR DRAWING TO AUTOCAD:

To get the best results for importing vector information to AutoCAD, the vector information should be previously saved in the DWG or DXF format. Most modeling and drawing software (Rhino, SketchUp, Revit, Illustrator) can write information in one or both of these formats. Use AutoCAD’s File > Open command to open files of either type (DWG or DXF).

AutoCAD also has an IMPORT command which is minimally useful in opening files of non-AutoCAD format.

Edit > Paste can be of use in specific situations when copying and pasting vector information from one document to another.

Techniques for Reducing File Size

This page summarizes file-size reduction techniques for several software applications. File-size reduction strategies are usually directed toward managing the overall size of a package of documents.

NOTE: As a general rule, full-size (non-reduced) copies of important documents should always be archived and backed up: reduced-size copies are not usually meant as a replacement for full versions.


REDUCING FILE SIZE IN PHOTOSHOP IMAGES:

MANAGING LAYERS. A reduced-size Photoshop image, regardless of file type, should always be “flattened” into a single layer. Use the Layer > Flatten Image command.

MANAGING IMAGE RESOLUTION. Use the Image > Image Size command to adjust image dimensions and resolution. Images measuring approximately 5” or 6” in their longest dimension, with a resolution of 150 or 200 pixels per inch, usually represent a good balance between file size and image quality.

CHOOSING THE PROPER FILE TYPE. Generally, though not always, the smallest Photoshop files will be met by using the JPEG file type. Use the File > Save As command. Setting the JPEG quality to “Medium” will represent a good balance of size and quality. In the case of images with large areas of solid color, using the TIFF format (with LZW compression) will usually result in a smaller file.


REDUCING FILE SIZE IN ILLUSTRATOR DOCUMENTS:

CHOOSING THE PROPER FILE TYPE. Illustrator uses two different “native” file formats, AI and PDF. To reduce file size, use the File > Save As command to save your Illustrator file in PDF format. When prompted to choose an “Adobe PDF Preset,” choose “Smallest File Size.”

ADDITIONAL OPTIONS. Refer to this site for a detailed description of Illustrator optimization techniques:
http://helpx.adobe.com/illustrator/kb/optimize-native-pdf-file-sizes.html


REDUCING FILE SIZE IN PDF FILES:

COMBINING DOCUMENTS IN ADOBE ACROBAT. If you choose to combine files into a single PDF, click the “Smallest File Size” icon. Use the “Single PDF” rather than the “PDF Portfolio” option.

PRINTING AS THE SMALLEST FILE SIZE. Open a PDF in Acrobat. Choose File > Print. Select PDF as your printer (Adobe PDF or a PDF Writer). Click the “Properties” button. Under “Default Settings,” choose “Smallest File Size.” Click OK, and then click Print.


REDUCING FILE SIZE IN AUTOCAD DRAWINGS AND MODELS:

PURGING THE AUTOCAD DRAWING. AutoCAD drawings often contain unnecessary information (e. g., unused blocks, layers, text styles, etc.). Type PURGE at the command prompt to eliminate such information. Follow the PURGE command with the File > Save As command.

THE OVERKILL COMMAND. Type OVERKILL at the command prompt to delete certain kinds of information in the drawing, e. g., lines which overlap other lines.

FILE > SAVE AS. Use this command to save a new copy of your AutoCAD file. This will usually reduce file size.


REDUCING FILE SIZE IN REVIT MODELS:

PURGING UNUSED ITEMS. Under the Manage tab, Settings panel, choose Purge Unused. This tool will tend to have a greater effect on Projects than Families.

[APPLICATION MENU] > SAVE AS. Use this command to save a new copy of your Revit file. This will usually reduce file size. Test the effect of checking the “Compact File” option while saving (Click Options in the Save As dialog box).


REDUCING FILE SIZE IN RHINO MODELS:

PURGE THE MODEL. Type PURGE at Rhino’s command prompt.

FILE > SAVE AS. Use this command to save a new copy of your Rhino file. This will usually reduce file size.


REDUCING FILE SIZE IN SKETCHUP MODELS:

PURGE UNUSED. Choose Window > Model Info > Statistics; click Purge Unused. Follow this with File > Save As.

ELIMINATE TEXTURES. A copy of your model saved without textures will be much smaller than the same model with textures.

FILE > SAVE AS. Use this command to save a new copy of your SketchUp file. This will usually reduce file size.

 

 

What is Grasshopper?

GRASSHOPPER is a visual programming editor which runs within Rhino3D. It is designed to automate and customize many of the modeling functions available within Rhino.

See:

www.grasshopper3d.com for resources and links.

www.rhino3d.com/download/grasshopper/1.0/wip to download the latest version of Grasshopper.

www.grasshopper3d.com/forum/categories/discussion-1/listForCategory for a discussion forum.

Step-by-Step: Building a Simple House in Rhino

1.    Start Rhino, using the Large Objects – Feet template.

2.    Double-click on the Perspective viewport label to maximize the viewport.

3.    Type OSNAP and make sure only Endpoint and Intersection snaps are “On.”

4.    Type LAYER to bring up the Layers palette. Double-click on Layer 01 to rename it Floor. Click in the check-mark column to make the Floor layer current.

5.    Type BOX. For the First corner of base, type 0,0 (zero comma zero) [enter].

6.    For the Other corner of base, type @14’,22’ (at fourteen feet comma twenty-two feet) [enter].

7.    For Height, type 1’ (one foot) [enter].

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8.    In the Layers palette, double-click on Layer 02 to rename it Walls. Click in the check-mark column to make the Walls layer current.

9.    Type BOX. For the First corner of base, click on the near corner of the floor. This point represents the outside corner of the bottom of the first wall. (END and INT will highlight to let you know you are snapping to the endpoint/intersection at the corner of the existing box.)

10.    For the Other corner of base, type @-6”,22’ (at negative six inches comma twenty-two feet) [enter].

11.    For Height, type 8’ (eight feet) [enter].

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12.    Type COPY. Select the wall you just built. For Point to copy from, choose the inside corner of the base of the wall you just built. For Point to copy to, choose the outside corner of the opposite side of the floor.

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13.    Type COPY. Select the original wall again. For Point to copy from, choose 0,0. For Point to copy to, choose 0,0. (This is known as copying in place.)

14.    Type ROTATE. Select the original wall. Rhino will prompt you to select one of two walls in the same place; choose either one.

15.    For the Center of rotation, click on the outside corner of the base of the wall.

16.    For the Angle or first reference point, type 90.

17.    Type MOVE. Select the copied wall. Move the wall so its corner aligns properly with the first wall you built. (OK if walls overlap.)

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18.    Type SCALE1D. Select the copied wall. For the Origin point, click on the near corner of the base of the wall. For the Scale factor or first reference point, click on the far corner (same side) of the base of the wall. For the Second reference point, click on the inside corner of the second wall you built. (Again, OK if walls overlap.)

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19.    Use the COPY command to copy the new wall to the opposite side of the floor.

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20.    Type BOOLEANUNION. Select the four walls you just built and press [enter].

21.    Type SETDISPLAYMODE. Set the display mode to Rendered.

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22.    Type OSNAP and check the Nearest snap “On.” (This will allow Rhino to lock to lines and edges.)

23.    Type BOX. For the First corner of base, click on an inside edge of the short wall already built. (This point will correspond to the corner of the front door.) For Other corner of base, type @3’,-6” (at three feet comma negative six inches). For Height, type 6’8” (six feet eight inches).

24.    Type BOOLEANDIFFERENCE. Select the walls [enter], then the door [enter].

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25.    In the Layers palette, double-click on Layer 03 to rename it Roof. Click in the check-mark column to make the Walls layer current.

26.    Type BOX. For the First corner of base, click on the near outside corner of the top of the walls. For the Other corner, click on the far outside corner of the walls. For the Height, type 6’ (six feet).

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27.    Type CPLANE. Invoke the 3Point option either by clicking on 3Point in the Command line, or by typing I [enter]. Click any three non-colinear points on the front surface of the “roof box” you just drew. (This changes the orientation of the base grid.)

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28.    Type OSNAP and check the Midpoint snap “On.”

29.    Type POLYLINE and draw a triangle on the front face of the “roof box” corresponding to the roof gable. Make sure to “close” the polyline by clicking on the first point to complete the triangle (a total of four clicks).

30.    Click on the “roof box” and press [delete].

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31.    Type EXTRUDECRV. Select the triangle you just drew. Click on the back of the house to “extrude” the triangle into a gable.

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32.    Type CAP. Select the extruded triangle.

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33.    Type CPLANE. Invoke the World option [w] and the Top plane [t].
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